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Horner's syndrome

Named after Johann F. Horner (1831 to 1886), Swiss anatomist
Synonyms: Horner's trias, Horner's complex, Horner's symptom complex, oculopupillary syndrome
German: Horner-Syndrom

1 Definition

The Horner's syndrome is a combination of symptoms consisting of miosis, ptosis and enophthalmos, which may have various causes.

2 Pathogenesis

The Horner's syndrome is normally caused by the paralysis of the smooth eye ((muscle]]s innervated by the sympathetic system. The main causes are, besides traumas, brain stem infarcts, Pancoast tumors or any other damage of the stellate ganglion.

3 Symptoms

Horner's syndrome is defined by the three following symptoms:

(other sources considers this as an artifact; due to the existing ptosis, the eyeball only seems to be sunk in)

4 Diagnostics

The diagnostics normally adopted are visual diagnostics as a well as observation after administration of certain drugs (cocaine equivalents), which usually causes a lack of, or alleviated, mydriasis.

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