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Difference between revisions of "Monoclonal Antibody"

 
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'''''German''': [[:de:Monoklonaler Antikörper|Monoklonaler Antikörper]]''
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==Definition==
 
==Definition==
 
'''Monoclonal antibodies''' are [[antibody|antibodies]] that are produced by a cell clone that stems from a single [[B lymphocyte]]. They are directed against a certain, single [[epitope]].
 
'''Monoclonal antibodies''' are [[antibody|antibodies]] that are produced by a cell clone that stems from a single [[B lymphocyte]]. They are directed against a certain, single [[epitope]].
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In nature, monoclonal antibodies are formed in a [[paraneoplastic]] manner in [[multiple myeloma]]s. Here, a malignant plasma cell population produces a single pathological antibody.
 
In nature, monoclonal antibodies are formed in a [[paraneoplastic]] manner in [[multiple myeloma]]s. Here, a malignant plasma cell population produces a single pathological antibody.
  
For medical or technical purposes, the [[hybridoma technology]] is used. Here, [[B lymphocyt]]es that produce the ofired antibody (and that could stem from a population that produced [[polylonal antibodies]]), are fusioned with myeloma cells and consecutively cultivated. in 1984, [[César Milstein]], [[Georges Köhler]] and [[Niels Jerne]] received the [[Nobel prize for medicine]] for developing the hybridoma technology
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For medical or technical purposes, the [[hybridoma technology]] is used. Here, [[B lymphocyt]]es that produce the desired antibody (and that could stem from a population that produced [[polylonal antibodies]]), are fusioned with myeloma cells and consecutively cultivated. in 1984, [[César Milstein]], [[Georges Köhler]] and [[Niels Jerne]] received the [[Nobel prize for medicine]] for developing the hybridoma technology.
  
Searching for new monoclonal antibodies was sped up by [[Biopanning]] with [[Phage display]] approaches.
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Searching for new monoclonal antibodies was sped up by [[biopanning]] with [[phage display]] approaches.
  
 
==Medical use==
 
==Medical use==
Monoclonal antibodies can be used for medical purposes. Sie kommen sowohl in der [[Diagnosis]] als auch in der [[therapy]] zum Einsatz, z.B. als [[Immunsuppressivum]] oder [[Rezeptorblocker]].
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Monoclonal antibodies can be used for medical purposes.
  
 
=== Diagnosis ===
 
=== Diagnosis ===
Numerous [[diagnostical]] procedures rely on the use of antibodies, e.g. [[Radioimmunoassay]]s and [[ELISA]]s. The use of monoclonal antibodies has the advantage that the same [[charge]] is used and the results are thus reproducible.
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Numerous [[diagnostical]] procedures rely on the use of antibodies, e.g. [[radioimmunoassay]]s and [[ELISA]]s. The use of monoclonal antibodies has the advantage that the same [[charge]] is used and the results are thus reproducible.
  
 
Furthermore, monoclonal antibody are used in [[in-vivo diagnostics]]. Examples are:
 
Furthermore, monoclonal antibody are used in [[in-vivo diagnostics]]. Examples are:
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* A. F. Ochsenbein. "[http://www.medicalforum.ch/pdf/pdf_d/2008/2008-08/2008-08-023.PDF Monoclonal antibody als therapeutische Substanzen]", Schweiz Med Forum. 2008;8(8):140–143
 
* A. F. Ochsenbein. "[http://www.medicalforum.ch/pdf/pdf_d/2008/2008-08/2008-08-023.PDF Monoclonal antibody als therapeutische Substanzen]", Schweiz Med Forum. 2008;8(8):140–143
 
* [http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/IE/Monoclonal_Antibody.php Access Excellence: Monoclonal Antibody Technology - The Basics]
 
* [http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/IE/Monoclonal_Antibody.php Access Excellence: Monoclonal Antibody Technology - The Basics]
* [http://www.1lec.com/Immunology/Monoclonal%20Antibodies/index.html Flash-Animation to monoclonal antibodies]
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* [http://www.1lec.com/Immunology/Monoclonal%20Antibodies/index.html Flash-Animation on monoclonal antibodies]
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[[de:Monoklonaler Antikörper]]

Latest revision as of 13:28, 7 April 2014

German: Monoklonaler Antikörper

1 Definition

Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies that are produced by a cell clone that stems from a single B lymphocyte. They are directed against a certain, single epitope.

2 Origin and Production

In nature, monoclonal antibodies are formed in a paraneoplastic manner in multiple myelomas. Here, a malignant plasma cell population produces a single pathological antibody.

For medical or technical purposes, the hybridoma technology is used. Here, B lymphocytes that produce the desired antibody (and that could stem from a population that produced polylonal antibodies), are fusioned with myeloma cells and consecutively cultivated. in 1984, César Milstein, Georges Köhler and Niels Jerne received the Nobel prize for medicine for developing the hybridoma technology.

Searching for new monoclonal antibodies was sped up by biopanning with phage display approaches.

3 Medical use

Monoclonal antibodies can be used for medical purposes.

3.1 Diagnosis

Numerous diagnostical procedures rely on the use of antibodies, e.g. radioimmunoassays and ELISAs. The use of monoclonal antibodies has the advantage that the same charge is used and the results are thus reproducible.

Furthermore, monoclonal antibody are used in in-vivo diagnostics. Examples are:

3.2 Therapy

Increasingly, monoclonal antibodies are used for therapeutic purposes. Here specific binding of monoclonal antibodies to certain epitopes (e.g. receptors) with cosecutive blocking of their biological action is used.

Examples are (among others):

3.3 Research

Monoclonal antibodies are also used in research. Examples are Western Blots, FACS and Magnetic Bead Assays.

4 Classification

Monoclonal antibodies are classified according to an international terminology. Single syllables of the name designate the use of the antibody and the species of origin:

Prefix Target infix Origin infix Suffix
Variable -o(s)-: Bone -u-: human -mab
-vi(r)-: Virus -o-: mouse
-ba(c)-: Bacteria -a-: rat
-li(m)-: immune system -e-: Hamster
-le(s)-: Infection -i-: Primat
-ci(r)-: Cardiovascular System -xi-: Chimeric (e.g. mouse-human or hamster-human)
-mu(l)-: Musculoscelettal System -zu-: humanized
-ki(n)-: Interleukin -axo-: Hybrid (rat-mouse)
-co(l)-: Colon tumor
-me(l)-: Melanoma
-ma(r)-: Mamma tumor
-go(t)-: testicular tumor
-go(v)-: Ovarian tumor
-pr(o)-: Prostata tumor
-tu(m)-: Tumor (gerneral)
-neu(r)-: Nervous system
-tox(a)-: Toxine
-fu(ng)-: funghi

Examples:

  • Ri-tu-xi-mab: Chimeric antibody for the treatment of tumors
  • Ada-lim-u-mab: Humaner immunotropic antibody
  • Ab-ci-xi-mab: Chimeric antibody with cardiovascular target

5 Sources and references

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