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Diabetes mellitus

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German: Diabetes mellitus

1 Definition

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a severe metabolic disease that is characterized by persistent high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) and numerous accompanying symptoms.

2 Classification

According to the American Diabetes Association Diabetes mellitus is classified as follows:

  • 1: Insulin deficiency
    • 1A: Insulin deficieny (autoimmune origin)
    • 1B: Insulin deficiency (idiopathic)
  • 2: Hybrid of secretory dysfunction and Insulin resistance
    • DM 2 with leading secretory dysfunction
    • DM 2 with leading insulin resistance
  • 3: Secondary and genetical forms of DM
    • 3A: Genetical disorder of pancreatic Beta cells
    • 3B: Genetically mediated Insulin resistance
    • 3C: Pancreoprivic Diabetes mellitus
    • 3D: Secondary endocrine Diabetes mellitus
    • 3E: DM mediated by chemical agents or drugs
    • 3F: DM mediated by infectious agents
    • 3G: Immunologically caused DM
    • 3H: Other genetic syndromes
  • 4: Gestational DM

3 Prognosis

Prognosis of Diabetes mellitus depends from an optimal metabolic control, as shown by large clinical studies like DCCC. Patients under continued hyperglycemic conditions are prone to high risk for developing complications like diabetic angiopathy, neuropathy, retinopathy or nephropathy. ON the other hand, hypoglycemia bears high acute threats.

4 Therapy

Therapy of Diabetes mellitus is different for different diabetes types. DM with insulin deficiency requires substitution of insulin. Other therapeutic options are modulation of insulin resistance and lifestyle modifying interventions.

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