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Synonym: ankle bone
German: Talus, Sprungbein

1 Definition

The talus is a bone of foot skeleton, which belongs to the tarsal bones.

2 Anatomy

The talus is a biconvex shaped bone with a laterally compressed shape. It can be divided into different sections - corpus (body), collum (neck) and caput (head).

The Corpus tali has on its upper side the articular surface to the upper ankle joint: the talar dome trochlea tali. Beneath the corpus tali there exists a hollowed-out joint surface, the facies articularis calcanea posterior. It is part of the subtalar joint.

The Collum tali, which connects the corpus with the caput tali, departs from the corpus in a frontal direction, separated from it by the sulcus tali. On the lower surface of the collum tali of the talus we find the facies articularis calcanei media, on the caput tali we find the facies articularis calcanei anterior, both are joined to the heel bone (calcaneus) via an articulated connection. At the caput tali we also find the articular surface to the os naviculare (facies articularis navicularis).

The talus thus forms the joint surface to the upper ankle joint (articulatio talocruralis) and essentially also form the articular surfaces of the subtalar joint (articulatio talocalcaneonavicularis).

3 Functional anatomy

At the talus there are no origin or attachment areas for muscles present. As the highest bone of foot skeleton, the talus is responsible in the standing and walking body for the transfer of body weight forces onto the arch. The talus thus establishes the mediation between the loads of the lower legs and the foot dynamics. Therefore, form and function specific requirements exist in relation to the talus.

4 Development

The bone core arises in the talus between the 7th and 8th foetal months.

5 Variety

In exceptional cases, a separate tuberculum laterale of the (processus posteriori tali) exists. This unit of bone is then referred to as the os trigonum.

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