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1,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid

Synonyms: 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate, bisphosphoglyceric acid
Abbreviation: 1,3BPG
German: 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerat

1 Definition

1,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid is an organic molecule which occurs in living beings. The three carbon atom structure is a metabolic intermediate of glycolysis and its reverse pathway gluconeogenesis, but also of the calvin cycle in plant photosynthesis.

2 Glycolysis

During the second part (amortization phase) of the glycolytic degradation of glucose to pyruvic acid, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) is oxidized to 1,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid (1,3BPG) by the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (GAPDH).

This step involves the reduction of NAD+ to NADH/H+. Remarkable about this reaction is that free inorganic phosphate is transferred to the carboxyl group, which is rather uncommon in biochemistry.

GAPDH: GAP + NAD+ + Pi → 1,3BPG + NADH/H+

The resulting 1,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid contains an energy-rich carboxylic acid-phosphoric acid-anhydride-bond.

In the next step, the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) enzyme transfers the phosphate group from 1,3BPG to one molecule of ADP utilizing the energy stored in this anhydride bond. The products are 3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG) and ATP.

PGK: 1,3BPG + ADP → 3PG + ATP

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