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Seizure

German: Krampfanfall

1 Definition

A seizure is an episode of involuntarily triggered events that are associated with spasmodic or twitching motions. Seizures don't always indicate the presence of epilepsy.

2 Differential diagnosis

Differential diagnosis of seizures is important to distinguish generally benign seizures from seizures that are a symptom of epilepsy.

An epileptic seizure usually exhibits a typical pattern depending on its genesis and occurs spontaneously.

2.1 Nonepileptic seizure (NES)

The following conditions may appear similar to epileptic seizures, although they do not have a primarily brain-related cause:

3 Reflex seizures

An important group of seizures are episodes associated with so-called reflex epilepsies. Those kinds of seizures occur in predisposed patients only as a result of specific triggers, for example:

  • Flickering light or other visual triggers (e.g. specific patterns or colors)
  • Intensive thinking, brooding
  • Reading
  • Sensitive affections (e.g. skin perceptions)
  • Eating
  • Hot water or beverages
  • Acoustic triggers (e.g. certain music or rhythms)
  • Startling moments

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