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Perineum

German: Perineum

1 Definition

The perineum is the area between the anal and the outer genitals. The male perineum is bounded by the anal and the scrotum. The female one is bounded by the anal and the posterior commissure of the labia majora.

2 Anatomy

In a topographical view the perineum is the central region of the Regio periealis. It consists mainly of muscles, which are part of the muscles of the pelvic floor. The overlying skin and subcutal tissue is very sensitively innervated, what shows the meaning as an erogenous area. The Nervus pudendus is the nerve innervating the area.

2.1 Arterial supply

The branches of the Arteria iliaca interna supply the pelvic floor and cavity: Arteria iliolumbalis: This arteria runs from posterior to the Musculus psoas major to lateral in the Fossa iliaca. Arteriae sacrales laterales: They supply the Os sacrum. Additionally they supply the content of the sacral canal and the Musculus piriformis. Arteria pudenda interna: This one laves the pelvis medial to the arteria glutae inferior and nervus ischiadicus via the foramen infrapiriforme. Than this artery and the nervus pudendus bend around the spina ischiadica or ligamentum sacrospinale in the fossa ischioanalis, where they run forward within the canalis pudendalis (Alcock’s canal), a duplication of the fascia of the musculus obturatorius internus, next to the ramus ossis ischii to the musculus transverses perinei profundus. Beside these structures the arteria pudenda interna supplies the muscles of the pelvic floor, the [[Musculus transversus perinei profundus, Musculus transversus perinei superficialis and Musculus levator ani. Its final branch is called arteria profunda penis or respectively arteria profunda clitoridis.

2.2 Venous drainage

The arteries describes above are accompanied from veins with the same name. They run in the opposite direction. The branches of the arteria iliaca interna and externa are lying between two veins.

2.3 Lymphatic drainage

The lymphatic drainage of the pelvic floor runs generally along the blood vessels.

3 Innervation=

4 Clinical

While giving birth to a child there is the risk of a perineal laceration. To prevent this, physicians often do an incision, the so-called episiotomy.

Specialties: Anatomy

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