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Normal values

German: Normalwerte

1 Definition

Normal values are defined as references for the evaluation of measured parameters (eg. lab values). Commonly, they are given as limit value ranges (normal or reference ranges), within which the measured values of around 95% of a representative population can be found.

see also: laboratory medicine, normal distribution

2 Important normal values

Hereafter, you will find a short overview of the most important normal values.

Important note: The reference ranges stated here only give a rough indication. Since reference ranges depend on the method of analysis applied, among others, the reference range given by the analyzing laboratory is always relevant when in doubt.

2.1 Clinical chemistry

Value Reference range Woman Man Child Unit
sodium 135 - 148     130-145 mmol/l
potassium 3,6 - 5,2     130-145 mmol/l
calcium total 2,20 - 2,65     mmol/l
Calcium ion. 1,15 - 1,32     mmol/l
Chloride 95 - 110     mmol/l
Magnesium 0,7 - 1,1     mmol/l
Phosphate 0,84 - 1,45     mmol/l
Glucose 70 - 100 (with an empty stomach)     mg/dl
Total protein 6,6 - 8,3     g/dl
Urea 10 - 55     mg/dl
creatinine   0,8-1,2 0,9-1,4 mg/dl
Crea.Clearance   98-156 95-160 ml/min
Uric acid     2,5-5,7 3,5-7,0 mg/dl
Triglycerides 150 - 200     mg/dl
Cholesterol 140 - 200     mg/dl
HDL   >42 >35 mg/dl
LDL < 130     mg/dl
Iron   23-163 35-168 µg/dl
ferritin 35 - 217 23-110 35-217 µg/l
GOT (= AST)   <35 <50   U/l
GPT (= ALT)   <35 <50 U/l
Gamma-GT   4-18 10-71 U/l
Alkaline phosphatase   60-170 70-175 U/l
GLDH   < 5 < 7 U/l
CHE 3500 - 8500     U/l
Total bilirubin < 1,1     mg/dl
direct bilirubin < 0,3     mg/dl
Ammonia   20-65 28-80 µg/dl
CK-NAC   10-70 10-80 U/l
Myoglobin ca. < 70 19-56 21-98 ng/ml
Troponin 0,01 - 0,08     ng/ml
LDH 266 - 500     U/l
Blood alcohol 0    
Lipase < 60     U/l
Pancreas amylase 17- 115     U/l
Osmolality 280 - 300     mosm/kg
Lactate < 16     mg/dl

2.2 Coagulation

2.2.1 Overview

Value Reference range Unit
Prothrombin time 70-100  %
INR 1 dimensionless
PTT 26-36 sec
PTT 14-21 sec
Platelets 150-300 K/µl

2.2.2 Special parameters

Value Reference range Unit
Fibrinogen 180-350 mg/dl
Antithrombin III (AT3) 70-120  %
Bleeding time < 5 min
PFA closing speed, collagen/epinephrine 85-165 sec
PFA closing speed, collagen/ADP 71-118 sec

2.3 Small hemogram

Value Reference range Woman Man Infants Unit
White cell count 4,4-11,3     9,4-34,0 K/microl
Lymphocytes 20-40        %
neutrophile 45-85        %
Red blood cell count   4,1-5,4 4,5-6,0 4,0-6,8 M/microl
Hemoglobin   11,5-16,4 13,5-18,0 14 -20 g/dl
Hematocrit   35-45 36-48    %
MCV 76-88       fl
MCH (HbE) 28-32       pg
Platelet count 150-300       K/microl
Proof of malaria negative        
Reticulocytes 7-15       o/oo
Reticulocyte hemoglobin 28-35       pg

2.4 Differential hemogram

Cell type Proportion of total white cells (%) Number /µl (absolute)
banded neutrophile granulocytes 3 - 5 150 - 400
segmented neutrophile granulocytes 54 - 62 3 000 - 5 800
eosinophilic granulocytes 1 - 3 50 - 250
basophilic granulocytes 0 - 1 15 - 50
Lymphocytes 25 - 33 1 500 - 3 000
Monocytes 3 - 7 280 - 500
Total white cells
(adults)
100 4 000 - 10 000

2.5 Drugs (therapeutic range)

Name Reference range Unit
Digoxin 0,8 - 2,0 µg/l
Digitoxin 10 - 30 µg/l
Theophylline 8 - 20 mg/l
Lithium 0,4 - 1,3 mmol/l
Amiodarone 0,7 - 2,0
(> 5 mg/l toxic)
mg/l
Vancomycin 5,0 - 40
(> 5 mg/l toxic)
µg/ml

2.6 Hormones and diabetes

FT3 1,64 - 3,45 pg/ml
FT4 0,71 - 1,85 ng/dl
Basal TSH 0,3 - 4,0 mI.E./l
TRH-test 2-25 mI.E./l
Beta-HCG < 10 I.U./l
Insulin 1,6 - 10,8 mU/l
Insulin OGTT 1st hour < 140
Fructosamine 2,0 - 2,8 mmol/dl
HbA1c 4,2 - 6,2 %

2.7 Sexual hormones

Hormone Comment Normal range Unit
FSH follicular phase 2,5 -10 U/l
  Ovulation 3-33 U/l
  Luteal phase 1-9 U/l
  Pregnancy < 0,3 ng/l
  Menopause 23 - 116 ng/l
LH Follicular phase 2-15 U/l
  Ovulation 22-105 U/l
  Luteal phase 1-19 U/l
(17-ß)-Estradiol Follicular phase 30-120 ng/l
  Ovulation 90-330 ng/l
  Luteal phase 60-185 ng/l
  Preg. 1st Tri 100 - 5500 ng/l
  Preg. 2nd Tri 850 - 17000 ng/l
  Preg. 3rd Tri 4200 - 30000 ng/l
  Menopause 10 - 50 ng/l
Progesterone Follicular phase 0,15-1,4 µg/l
  Luteal phase 3-25 µg/l
  21st day of the menstrual cycle >10 µg/l
Prolactin   3,0-25 µg/l
Androstendione   < 3,1 µg/l
DHEAS   0,35-4,3 mg/l
Testosterone   0,85 µg/l

2.8 Hepatitis serology

Anti-HAV (IgG/IgM) negative
Anti-Hbs negative
Anti-HBc ( IgG/IgM) negative
HBs-antigen negative
Anti-HCV negative

2.9 Tumor markers

PSA < 4,0 ng/ml
CEA < 5,0 ng/ml
AFP < 11 IU/ml
CA 19-9 < 40 IU/ml

2.10 Blood gas analysis

pH 7,37-7,45
pCO2 32-43 M.35-46 F.32-43 mmHg
pO2 71-104 mmHg
BE -2 - +3 mmol/l
Bicarbonate 21-26 mmol/l
O2 saturation 94-98 %

2.11 Proteins

Protein Reference range Unit
IgE <100 IU/ml
IgG 700-1600 mg/dl
IgA 70-380 mg/dl
IgM 40-230 mg/dl
Transferrin 200 - 360 mg/dl

2.12 Electrophoresis

Albumin 55.3-68.9 %
Alpha1 globulin 1,6 - 5,8 %
Alpha2 globulin 5,9 - 11,1 %
Beta globulin 7,9 - 13,9 %
Beta globulin 11,4 - 18,2 %

2.13 Urine analysis

White cells < 25 Whi/microl
Reds 2 Reds/microl
Squamous epithelial cells none
Round epithelial cells none
Bacteria none
Nitrite 0 mg/dl
pH level 6-7
Protein < 10 mg/dl
Glucose 0 mg/dl
Acetone 0 mg/dl
Bilirubin  
Urobilinogen  
Urine sediment  

2.14 Feces

* Hemoccult test (guaiac test):      negative

2.15 Immunology

Value General Woman Man Unit
CRP   < 1,0 < 0,5 mg/dl
PCT (Procalcitonin) < 0,5     ng/ml
Blood sedimentation (1st hour)   < 25 < 15 mm/h
Immunoglobulin G 700-1600     mg/dl
Immunoglobulin M   40-280 40-230 mg/dl
Immunoglobulin A 70-380     mg/dl
Immunoglobulin E up to 100     IU/ml
RF < 40      
Anti-citrulline ab.        
ASL < 200      

2.16 Autoantibodies

Normally, there are no autoantibodies to be detected.

Autoantibodies Occur in
Acetylcholine receptor antibody Myasthenia gravis
ANCA (ACPA, granulocyte cytoplasm) Wegener’s granulomatosis
  Vasculitis
  Ulcerative colitis
  Crohn’s disease
  Primary sclerosing cholangitis
AMA (mitochondria) Primary biliary cirrhosis
  Syphilis
ANA/ENA-antibodies (antinuclear antibodies) Collagenosis
  Rheumatoid arthritis
  Autoimmune chronic hepatitis type I
Goblet cell antibodies Ulcerative colitis
Colon epithelium AB Ulcerative colitis
ds-DNA antibodies (double-stranded DNA) Lupus erythematosus
Anti-endomysium antibodies Celiac disease/sprue
  Dermatitis herpetiformis
Epidermal basement membrane AB   Pemphigoid
GADA (glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies)   Type-1-diabetes
Smooth muscles (ASMA)   Autoimmune chronic-active hepatitis
  Polymyositis
  Primary biliary cirrhosis
Gliadin antibodies   Celiac disease/sprue
  Dermatitis herpetiformis
Glomerulus-basement membrane antibodies   Autoimmune glomerulonephritis
  Goodpasture syndrome
Granulocyte cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA, ACPA)   Wegener’s granulomatosis
  Vasculitis
  Ulcerative colitis
  Crohn’s disease
  Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Histone antibodies   Medicinal LE
  SLE
IA2-AK (tyrosine phosphatase antibodies)   Type-1 diabetes
Islet cell antibodies   Type-1 diabetes
Insulin antibodies   Insulin resistance
Liver-kidney-microsome antibodies (LKM)   Autoimmune hepatitis type II
  Chronic active hepatitis
  Drug-induced hepatitis
Liver membrane antibodies   Chronic active hepatitis
Liver-specific protein (LSP, LSA)   Acute hepatitis
  Chronic active hepatitis
  Primary biliary cirrhosis
Anti-adrenal antibodies   Addison’s disease
  Polyglandular autoimmunity type 1
  Adrenal cortex-metastasis
  Adrenal cortex hemorrhage
  (z.B. Waterhouse-Friedrichsen syndrome)
Parietal cell antibodies (stomach)   Pernicious anemia
  Chronic-atrophic gastritis
Parotid antibodies   Sjögren's syndrome
peroxidase antibodies (thyroid gland)   Autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s thyreoiditis)
  Myxedema
Phospholipid antibodies(ACLA)   Primary anti-phospholipid syndrome (APLS)
  Secondary APLS (SLE, collagenosis)
Rheumatoid factor (RF)   Rheumatoid arthritis
Cyclic anti-citrulline peptide-antibodies   Rheumatoid arthritis
  Chronic liver diseases
  Sarcoidosis
  Interstitial pulmonary diseases
  EBV infection
  Tuberculosis
  Syphilis
  Condition after vaccination
  Condition after transfusion
Skeletal muscle antibodies   Myasthenia gravis
  Thymoma
  Polymyositis
Anti-salivary gland antibodies   Sjögren’s syndrome
ss-DNA (single-stranded DNA)   SLE
  Drug-induced LE
  Rheumatoid arthritis
Prickle cell desmosomes   Pemphigus vulgaris
Anti-spermatozoa antibodies   Infertility
Thyreoglobulin antibodies (TAB)   Hashimoto’s thyreoiditis
  Myxedema
  Hypothyroidism
TSH receptor antibodies (TRA)   Grave’s disease
  Grave’s ophthalmopathy
Anti-platelet antibodies   Autoimmune thrombocytopenia (Werlhof’s disease)
Tubular basement membrane   Autoimmune interstitial nephritis
  Goodpasture syndrome
  Autoimmune glomerulonephritis
  Progressive glomerulonephritis

3 Abbreviations

see also: standard units, medical abbreviations

3.1 Liter (l)

  • dl Deciliter (10-1 l)
  • ml Mililiter (10-3 l)
  • µl Microliter (10-6 l)
  • nl Nanoliter (10-9 l)
  • fl Femtoliter (10-15 l)

3.2 Molarity (mol)

  • mmol Millimole (10-3 mol)
  • µmol Micromole (10-6 mol)
  • nmol Nanomole (10-9 mol)
  • pmol Picomole (10-12 mol)
  • fmol Femtomole (10-15 mol)

3.3 Particles (p)

  • Mpt Megaparticles (106 particles)
  • Gpt Gigaparticles (109 particles)
  • Tpt Teraparticles (1012 particles)

3.4 Time (t)

  • s sec = seconds
  • min = minutes
  • h = hour
  • d = day

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