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Isoniazid

Synonym: Isonicotinylhydrazide (INH)
Trade names: Isovit®, Hyzid®, Hydra®, and others
German: Isoniazid

1 Definition

Isoniazid is an antibiotic of the group of tuberculostatics. It is used for the tuberculosis treatment and for prevention in infected persons who are not sick yet.

2 Effect mechanism

Isoniazid is absorbed by the bacterial cell, transformed into isonicotinic acid in its inside, and integrated into NAD instead of nicotinic acid. NAD plays an important role as coenzyme in various metabolic responses. Now, it cannot exercise this function anymore, and the synthetization of nucleic acids and mycolic acid cannot work as usual anymore. Mycolic acid, however, is an essential component of the cell wall, which accounts for the high resistance of the bacterium. Meanwhile, a lot of bacterial resistances, which have a strongly negative influence on the effect of isoniazid and other tuberculostatics, have developed.

3 Indications

4 Side effects

The ingestion of isoniazid can cause a vitamin B6 deficiency, which can lead to polyneuritis. For the prevention of these damages, you can administer a vitamin B6 preparation.

5 Interactions

6 Contraindication

In diseases of the liver, such as acute hepatitis or liver failure, you should avoid taking the drug. In alcohol abuse and diabetes mellitus, it is not recommendable to take the drug.

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