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Glucosamine

Synonyms: D-Glucosamine, 2-Amino-2-deoxy-glucose Chitosamine
German: Glucosamin

1 Definition

Glucosamine is a derivative of glucose that contains an amino group rather than a hydroxyl group on the second carbon atom. It was discovered in 1876 by the German Dr. Georg Ledderhose in the context of his research on cartilage.

2 Chemistry

Glucosamine has a molar mass of 179.17 g/mol. The molecular formula is: C6H13NO5

2.1 Structural formula

3 Biochemistry

Glucosamine is a component of the exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans. Glucosamine is industrially produced from the exoskeleton's chitin. In human cells D-glucosamine is produced from fructose-6-phosphate and glutamine as glucosamine-6-phosphate.

4 Function

D-Glucosamine is a component of human cartilage and synovial fluid. Furthermore it is a precursor of all nitrogen-containing sugar molecules. D-Glucosamine can also be further converted into N-acetylglucosamine. In this form it is an important component of the polysaccharide coating (glycocalix) of erythrocytes.

Specialties: Anatomy, Biology

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