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Fibula

From Latin: fibula - brooch
Synonym: calf bone
German: Fibula

1 Definition

The fibula is a bone of the leg which, together with the tibia, forms the bony lower leg. Firmly attached to the tibia, the fibula forms the articular surfaces for the upper ankle.

2 Anatomy

2.1 Corpus fibulae (fibular shaft)

The fibular shaft has three sharp edges (margo anterior, posterior and interosseous), which cover the three areas (facies medialis, lateralis and posterior) between them. Multiple partitioning comes about through the numerous muscle origin points there.

The taut  interosseous membrane extends between the margo interosseous and the edge carrying the same name tibia; the membrana interossea cruris divides the entire lower leg into front and a rear sections. On the rear surface of the fibula shaft the crista medialis separates the origin surface of ​​the musculus tibialis posterior from the musculus flexor hallucis longus.
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2.2 Collum fibulae (fibular neck)

The fibular neck (collum fibulae) represents the connection between the head of the fibula and the corpus fibulae.

2.3 caput fibulae (head of calf bone)

The fibula is, like the "neck" portion (collum fibulae) connected to it, clearly able to be identified by feeling on the lateral side of the knee. The contact with the shin bone occurs via a cartilaginous joint surface, the facies articularis capitis fibulae, which is connected to the facies articularis fibularis on the condylus lateralis of the tibia. The very striking tip of the fibula points In a proximal direction, the apex capitis fibulae.

2.4 Malleolus lateralis (lateral malleolus)

The angular cross-sectional shape of the fibula fades towards the lower end. A sharp swelling here forms the lateral malleolus. This is bound tightly to the tibia and has its own joint surface - the articular surface malleolaris lateralis. The malleolis lateralis extends further distally than the tibia. In combination with the malleolus medialis tibiae it gives rise to the mortise which holds the talus therebetween.

3 Development

During the 2nd embryonal month, the perichondral bone cuff develops in the area of ​​the corpus. In the 2nd year of life an endochondral bone core appears in the malleolus appears, in the caput however this occurs during the 4th year.

The closure of the pineal occurs distally between 16 and 19, proximally a little later, between 17 and 20 years of age. The course of the epiphysal gap line is located proximally below the head of the fibula, distally slightly above the malleolus.

4 Function

The fibula does not have a connection to the knee, but forms with its distal end a proportion of the upper ankle; from there it passes the forces acting on the leg through the articulatio tibiofibularis proximalis and the interosseous membrane onto the tibia and thus to the femur.

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