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Cementum

Synonyms: root cementum, dental cementum, Substantia ossea dentis
German: Wurzelzement

1 Definition

Cementum covers the root of every tooth. It is a specialized calcified hard-substance, which is thick at the apex and is fading out to the cervical region. Dental cementum is part of the periodontium, which embeds the tooth mobile into the alveolar bone.

2 Primary cementum

Dental cementum can be divided into primary cementum, which represents only a thin layer and is free from cells and secondary cementum.

3 Secondary cementum

Secondary cementum contains cells and is mostly located at the apical region. Secondary cementum can be produced lifelong, as example in case of increased strain.

4 Histology

Anorganic substances Hydroxylapatite 65%
Water 12%
Organic substances Matrix of collagenfibrils and cementocytes 23%

5 Microscopic structure

Dental cementum is build up by cementoblasts. The cement building cementoblasts are located on the surface of the cement and immure themselves while they are synthesizing cement. The trapped cementoblasts are called cementozytes. It’s thickness can go up to 0,5 mm at the apex. While years go by, the thickness of the dental cement is increasing and even blood vessels can spread in an build up havers-systems. Because auf the cellular element, cementum is able to regenerate to a limited degree after damaged, as example trough inflammation or impact.

6 Sharpey-fibres

Sharpey-fibers penetrate trough the dental cementum into the dentin and connect the tooth with the alveolar bone and parts of the marginal gingiva. They are the reason for the minimal mobility of the tooth. Therefore cementum is simultaneously part of the tooth and the periodontal apparatus.

Specialties: Anatomy

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