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Adiponectin

German: Adiponectin

1 Definition

Adiponectin is an adipokine which is released by adipocytes. The tissue hormone exists in various oligomeric forms that can take different effects.

2 Structure

The protein consist of a 244 amino acid sequence and has a molecular weight of 28 kDa; the encoding gene is APMI on chromosome 3q27.

3 Physiology

Adiponectin has varied effects on fat- and glucose metabolism, it especially increases the sensitivity of target tissues to insulin. Furthermore, anti-atherosclerotic effects have been described. A short-term increase in the level of insulin leads to increased release of adiponectin; chronically increased insulin levels reduce its serum concentration.

4 Pathophysiology

Dysregulation of the hormone seem to play an important role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies were able to correlate low adiponectin levels with the development of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). High adiponectin levels were determined in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Furthermore, there are signs that adiponectin disturbances are connected to obesity and oxidative stress.

5 Diagnosis

The determination of serum adiponectin concentration is done with ELISA. Adiponectin makes up 0.01% of serum protein.

Recent study results (2006) show a correlation between adiponectin levels in CAD patients and the extent of calcification of coronary arteries: The lower the adiponectin level, the more severe the coronary damage.

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