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Acetyl-CoA carboxylase

Synonym: ACC
German: Acetyl-CoA-Carboxylase

1 Definition

Acetyl-CoA-Carboxylase is an enzyme belonging to the group of carboxylases. It is the pacemaker enzyme of fatty acid synthesis. Together with biotin as its prosthetic group it catalyzes the reaction from acetyl-CoA to Malonyl-CoA.

2 Biochemistry

Acetyl-CoA-Carboxylase exists in an inactive, monomeric form and in an active, polymeric form. The transition to the active form is stimulated in vitro by tricarboxylate anions, especially citrate. Citrate and ATP activate the enzyme because their synthesis increases in states of food surplus. Other activators of acetyl-CoA-Carboxylase are glucose and insulin. This regulation ensures that storage of nutrients in the form of fatty acids and triglycerides is possible in the event of surplus food intake, especially of carbohydrates.

AMP indirectly inhibits the enzyme. The AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates acetyl-CoA-Carboxylase which renders it inactive. This prevents the synthesis of fatty acids in case of a cellular lack of energy and an accordingly increased AMP level. A direct inhibitor of acetyl-CoA-Carboxylase is acyl-CoA the presence of which indicates that the acyl-CoA pool is saturated and further fatty acid synthesis is not necessary anymore.

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